National Palace Museum public
[search 0]
More
Download the App!
show episodes
 
The history of 19th century and 20th century China, leading up to the Chinese Revolutions, the Republic of China and then the People's Republic of China. This podcast was inspired by Mike Duncan's Revolutions. This podcast follows him by telling the stories leading to the Chinese Revolutions. The episodes cover the Opium Wars, Taiping Rebellion, foreign treaties and concessions bringing trade and Christianity to China, the Boxer Rebellion, China's 1911 Revolution, the Warlord Period, the KMT ...
  continue reading
 
Loading …
show series
 
By the early 1940s, the Communists in Yan’an were feeling relatively secure. The Japanese advance in north China had not reached that area. The Sino-Japanese War and the United Front meant that Chiang Kai-shek’s main concern had been Japan and not the Communist Party. The Nationalist Government in China even funded the Communists in Yan’an. Thousan…
  continue reading
 
For ten months in 1938, Hankou in Wuhan was the center of China's Second United Front and defense against the Japanese invasion. Artistic expression, political parties and free speech all blossomed. Neither the KMT nor the Communist Party fully controlled the city and a variety of generals, thinkers and artists came together to defend against Japan…
  continue reading
 
The treasures of the National Palace Museum, originally the Forbidden City, followed China's path. They escaped the invading Japanese by leaving Beijing, first for Shanghai, then Nanjing and then followed southern, central and northern routes to Sichuan and safety. The Chinese government followed a similar path, as did countless Chinese individuals…
  continue reading
 
On July 7, 1937, the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. It is also known as the Lugou Bridge Incident. Within days of the small skirmish with 100 Chinese garrison troops, the Japanese had brought in 180,000 troops. After that, the fighting between the Chinese and the Japanese did not stop until 1945…
  continue reading
 
After the Long March, the Chinese Communists were mostly in northern Shaanxi, wanting a breather. Japan had continued its aggression in China after it set up the puppet state of Manchukuo under Emperor Pu Yi. It manufactured incident after incident and had expanded its army’s reach into northern and northeast China. It was trying to influence Inner…
  continue reading
 
Zhou Enlai planned in secret the details of the Chinese Communist's escape from the encirclement of the Central Soviet. He identified a Guangdong warlord who preferred to save his troops rather than fight the Red Army. The First Red Army was able to pass through a number of blockhouses, before reaching the last of Chiang Kai-shek's fortifications n…
  continue reading
 
Mao Zedong had been chosen as President of the Chinese Soviet Republic, but he never controlled its Red Army. Wang Ming and the 28 Bolsheviks had more control, including over land policy and preparations to defend against the Fifth Encirclement Campaign. On land, the Communist Party of China officials didn't want land redistribution to result in a …
  continue reading
 
In September 1931, junior officer's of Japan's Kwantung Army in Manchuria set off explosives to make it look like a Chinese attack on Japanese interests along the South Manchuria Railway. This is often called the Mukden Incident or named after the nearby Liutiao Lake. The Kwantung Army then attacked Zhang Xueliang's nearby garrison and, with Japane…
  continue reading
 
Mao had long desired revolution to peace. Even as a student, he wrote of his desire for the destruction of the old universe. Thanks to his teacher Yang Changji, he met early leaders of the Communist Party, got a job as a junior librarian in Beijing and met his second wife. Yang Kaihui fell deeply in love with Mao and stayed loyal to him, even after…
  continue reading
 
Chiang Kai-shek used strong-armed tactics to fundraise for his army and government. Kidnapping, ransoms and execution were part of his tactics. He allied with the Green Gang of Shanghai, as did the French authorities. Shanghai businessmen were kidnapped and held for ransom unless they bought Nanjing's bonds during the Northern Expedition. T.V. Soon…
  continue reading
 
After the Northern Expedition, the Guomindang (KMT) ejected Communists from the Nationalist Party. The Communist Party of China had no army. Zhou Enlai had inserted Communists into the Nationalists' Army and the Nanchang Uprising was a coup planned to carve a Red Army out from the Guomindang's troops. It succeeded and they briefly formed a Revoluti…
  continue reading
 
Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) wanted to shrink the Chinese armies following the Northern Expedition. However, the warlords wouldn't agree without a fight. The result was the War of the Central Plains when Chiang defeated the warlords who had helped him win the Northern Expedition. One by one and then as a group they resisted his efforts to assert …
  continue reading
 
Zhang Zuolin paid for his defeat by the Northern Expedition with his life. Japan assassinated their former Manchurian ally by detonating a bomb as his train passed. Manchuria was becoming chaotic as refugees arrived fleeing battles and famine in Shandong. Other former warlords also died as family members of their victims took revenge. The Nationali…
  continue reading
 
The Nationalists' Northern Expedition began with doubts by their Communist allies. But it was a military success and quickly Henan and then Hebei provinces were captured. Mikhail Borodin then wanted the armies to move north along the Hankou-Beijing railway line. Instead, Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) preferred to follow the Yangzi River downstream…
  continue reading
 
In the lead up to Chiang Kai-shek's Northern Expedition, both the KMT's Hu Hanmin and the Christian General Feng Yuxiang were in Moscow. Hu sought admission by the KMT to the Comintern as China's representative. Feng was seeking weapons and engineers for his National People's Army. Both returned deeply skeptical about the Soviet Union and its inten…
  continue reading
 
Two funerals were held for Sun Yat-sen on the same day. One involved Christian rites by his family, to prove that Sun was not a Bolshevik. The other was organized by the Communist Party and involved the Soviet Ambassador and a loudspeaker playing Sun's message about nationalism. Already there was a fight to claim Sun's legacy. Sun's widow, Song Qin…
  continue reading
 
The Communist Party of China and the KMT both needed organizing. The KMT and Sun Yat-sen were overly reliant on southern warlords. When they turned on Sun, that made the KMT homeless and risked the life of Sun and those close to him, like his wife Song Qingling. She suffered a miscarriage when Chen Jiongming attacked their house in Guangzhou. Never…
  continue reading
 
A detailed look at China's internal divisions and its neighbours in 1921 when its Communist Party was founded. Please share your advice and make the podcast even better here ! Image; Map of China and Asia in 1921 Created for the Chinese Revolution Podcast and Chinese Revolution YouTube series. Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more informa…
  continue reading
 
The new Communist Party of China faced decisions on how to grow. Henk Sneevliet, representative of the Communist International (Comintern) to the Far East recommended allying with Sun Yat-sen and the KMT and forming a United Front. Communist Party members could join the KMT as individuals while the Communist Party criticized it and organized the wo…
  continue reading
 
A discussion with Anthony Vernon about atheism in China, both before and since Communism. The distinction between Chinese and foreign religions is featured, as well as how the Chinese Communist Party has changed its policies towards religions over time. Image: "Karl Marx, painted portrait _DDC2742" by Abode of Chaos is licensed under CC BY 2.0 Plea…
  continue reading
 
Students were the first Chinese to pay attention to the Russian Revolution and the new Communist government there. The Communist International (or Comintern) founded in 1919, also actively promoted and sponsored revolution abroad. Gregory Voitinsky arrived in 1920 as part of the Soviet efforts in China. Chinese students in France (like Zhou Enlai) …
  continue reading
 
Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People inspired the KMT party and were implemented after his death in 1925. They also facilitated cooperation between the KMT and the Communist Party of China during the periods of a United Front. This episode discusses those Three Principles as a prelude to a look at the founding of the Chinese Communist Party…
  continue reading
 
This podcast update looks forward to the beginning of the Chinese Communist Party, its United Front with the KMT, then the death of Sun Yat-sen, who is followed by Chiang Kai-shek. You’ll hear stories of the KMT’s successful Northern Expedition before turning its knives on the Communists and the beginning of the fighting between those two sides. Th…
  continue reading
 
Zhang Zuolin, the Manchurian Warlord, was a streetfighter known as the Pimple who went from waiter to leader of China's north. He climbed from bandit, to soldier and then formed bonds with Japan, Qing officials and then Yuan Shikai. Step by step he grew his power first in Fengtian province, then all three Manchurian provinces and then virtually all…
  continue reading
 
A southern Chinese government is set up in Guangzhou. Sun Yat-sen is named Generalissimo. The First Fleet joins with 9 warships. The Anfu Clique wants to attack the south and fails to defeat rebels in Hunan. Then Wu Peifu is sent south and makes progress, but stops his advance and criticizes Duan Qirui for siding with Japan against his fellow Chine…
  continue reading
 
The Chinese had high hopes for the negotiations in Versailles after the end of the First World War. Wellington Koo argued the Chinese case ably. China wanted to retake control of its Shandong Province, but instead Japan continued to control it because of agreements signed during the war. Then it became clear that Duan Qirui and his Anhui Clique had…
  continue reading
 
The KMT had been active opposing Yuan Shikai and his monarchy project. It had strong support among overseas Chinese. After Yuan Shikai's death, Li Yuanhong became President and Duan Qirui became Premier. KMT hopes for an effective republic quickly faded. Li and Duan disagreed about whether China should enter the First World War. Li, his Vice-Presid…
  continue reading
 
Chinese feminists and revolutionaries were active before and during China's 1911 Revolution. Qiu Jin wore men's clothing, was ahead of her time by writing in Standard Chinese instead of Classical Chinese and in making speeches to engage all ages in the struggle for women's rights and women's education. These women believed that women had to seek th…
  continue reading
 
Yuan Shikai consolidates power as President of the Republic of China. His greatest threats now come from outside China. Russia eyes Mongolia and Britain takes interest in Tibet. The First World War changes the dynamic and Japan seizes Germany's concessions in Shandong. Then Japan issues Twenty-One Demands on China. Yuan negotiates and softens the b…
  continue reading
 
Yuan Shikai promised to respect China's constitutional republic. A mutiny by unpaid members of the Beiyang Army causes riots in Beijing and other cities. Yuan avoids moving to Nanjing. He de-mobilizes provincial troops and wins a power struggle with the Chinese Premiers. Yuan Shikai puts his own men in important positions. The Guomindang (KMT) is f…
  continue reading
 
Yuan Shikai's New Army becomes a national model and military reforms spread throughout China. The death of the Empress Dowager brings Zaifeng in as regent to Pu Yi, the three year old emperor. Yuan is sacked and briefly fears for his life. He quietly retires for over two years. A Qing railway reorganization in Sichuan leads to rebellion. Imperial t…
  continue reading
 
Part 2 of a look at Yuan Shikai. Yuan resigned as Imperial Commissioner to Korea and served as a logistics officer during the Sino-Japanese war. Following China's defeat to Japan, Yuan wrote a 13,000 word memo to the emperor outlining his ideas for military reform. Yuan Shikai was then appointed and became the father of China's New Army. He was the…
  continue reading
 
This episode looks at the early life of Yuan Shikai, future president of the Republic of China. Born to a concubine in a leading gentry family in Henan province, Yuan was adopted by his uncle at age 5. He studied the Confucian classics, learned boxing, martial arts and horseback riding. He took over managing the family assets as a teenager and was …
  continue reading
 
In this third and final part, Sun Yat-sen's comeback from failed revolutionary is examined. He goes on the offensive against the reformers in Hawaii and in the world's Chinatowns. He builds on contacts with the French to gain weapons and workers for uprisings near the French Indochina border. He helps found the Revolutionary Alliance and becomes it…
  continue reading
 
Sun Yat-sen leaves London and lives in Japan for 3 years. He gains Japanese supporters and is considered their Chinese Hero. They fund him, his efforts and newspapers, as well as arming guerillas in the Philippines. Kang Youwei considers Sun to be an uneducated bandit and they compete for followers. An uprising near Huizhou in Guangdong province st…
  continue reading
 
Dr. Sun Yat-sen is a legend in mainland China, on Taiwan and in the Chinatowns of the world. This revolutionary's picture can be found at Tiananmen Square in Beijing and in the Legislative Chamber in Taipei. Few people are recognized as heroes by both the Chinese Communist Party and the KMT. Dr. Sun Yat-sen is one of them. This episode explores his…
  continue reading
 
A discussion of Kang Youwei, the famous Chinese scholar, writer, reformer and speaker. His early years, Buddhist meditations, success passing through the Qing examinations system and activism are considered. His exile following the 100 days of Reform to the Chinatowns of Canada and southeast Asia are described, including the founding of the Society…
  continue reading
 
A discussion with Anthony Vernon about Daoism, Confucianism, Kang Youwei, the Boxer Rebellion and the end of the Qing Dynasty. Image: "Boxer Prisoners Captured By 6th US Cavalry, Tientsin, China [1901] Underwood & Co [RESTORED]" by ralphrepo is licensed under CC BY 2.0. Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more information.…
  continue reading
 
A deep dive into anti-Christian riots in Tianjin in 1870. Stories of kidnapped, blinded and dead children are investigated. What are these new Christians up to? An official from the Forbidden City is sent to get to the truth. Who is to blame? Image: "Old church, Tianjin" by caitriana is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0. Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/pr…
  continue reading
 
This is the third part of the discussion with Lauren Schill about Cixi. We discuss her takeover from her adopted son the Emperor Guangxu following the 100 days of Reform and her role arming the Boxer Rebellion. Cixi and the Emperor flee to Xian and then return to Beijing. Cixi starts a charm offensive, institutes further reforms including for women…
  continue reading
 
This is the second part of the discussion about Cixi and we discuss her son Emperor Tongzhi's marriage, nighttime escapades, death from smallpox and Cixi's adoption of her nephew Emperor Guangxu and relegation of Prince Chun. Cixi deals with the Russians in Xinjiang, the French in Vietnam and the Japanese over Korea. The Dowager Empress builds up t…
  continue reading
 
A discussion with Lauren Schill, Host of the Well Behaved Women podcast, about Empress Dowager Cixi. This is the first part of the discussion about Cixi and discuss her childhood, family background, as well as becoming a concubine and rising through the ranks. The coup that takes her to power follows the Second Opium War and her husband's death at …
  continue reading
 
Meiji Japan learns from the West and builds its economy, its army and the Japanese Imperial Navy. Japan begins its own gunboat diplomacy and takes control of the Ryukyu Islands. It defeats China in the Sino-Japanese War and gains Penghu and Taiwan, as well as control over Korea. Russian and Japanese tensions build. Great Britain allies with Japan a…
  continue reading
 
Choshu rebels attack foreign ships and suffer the consequences. Choshu and Satsuma reach a secret alliance. The Bakufu plans a punitive expedition against Choshu but is out-maneuvered. The sudden death of the Emperor and a coup in the Imperial Court leads to Choshu receiving an amnesty. Choshu and Satsuma use the Imperial Pennants to defeat the Bak…
  continue reading
 
The Tokugawa shogunate in Japan prohibited ocean going vessels or travel between Japan and most countries. Japan rejected offers to commence trade with the West. Commodore Perry forced a first treaty on a reluctant Japan. The Samurai and country wanted to resist, but instead Japan began to open up and build a navy and build up a more western milita…
  continue reading
 
During the 19th century, there were far more Chinese men abroad than women. Mui Tsai women were bonded to affluent Chinese families as maidservants or concubines. Amahs worked as paid domestic servants overseas. Some lived in collective sisterhoods and refused to couple with men. China Mary was a pioneer woman in Sitka, Alaska. Oei Hui-lan was the …
  continue reading
 
Increased shipping in the Chinese treaty ports leads to Chinese migration abroad. Workers flock to Old Gold Mountain near San Francisco and Gold Mountain near Melbourne, Australia. The Chinese do better when they can work freely rather than as indentured coolies. Abuses and racism greet them worldwide. The Chinese learn non-violent resistance with …
  continue reading
 
Loading …

Quick Reference Guide