Clinically Researched List of Health and Ergogenic Bodybuilding Supplements

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Getting back to the beginning of how we started this podcast, it was just Austin and myself covering our entire supplement intake that consists of clinically backed and research health and ergogenic bodybuilding supplements. We could have gone on and on but covered just about everything in this one! Below is some of the literature referenced within the episode (for those that enjoy to take the education process one step forward.)


1. Therapeutic efficacy of aortic administration of N-acetylcysteine as a chemoprotectant against bone marrow toxicity after intracarotid administration of alkylators, with or without glutathione depletion in a rat model. E. A. Neuwelt, M. A. Pagel, B. P. Hasler, T. G. Deloughery, L. L. Muldoon. Cancer Res. 2001 (

2. N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry: current therapeutic evidence and potential mechanisms of action. Olivia Dean, Frank Giorlando, Michael Berk. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2011 (

3. Assessment of glutathione homeostasis. Gennaro Giordano, Collin C. White, Lucio G. Costa

Methods Mol Biol. 2011 (

4. Glutathione pathways in the brain. Ralf Dringen, Johannes Hirrlinger. Biol Chem. 2003 (

5. N-Acetylcysteine's attenuation of fatigue after repeated bouts of intermittent exercise: practical implications for tournament situations. James N. Cobley, Chris McGlory, James P. Morton, Graeme L. Close. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011 (

6. N-acetylcysteine inhibits muscle fatigue in humans. Reid, M. B., Stokić, D. S., Koch, S. M., Khawli, F. A., & Leis, A. A. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1994 (

7 .Acetaminophen poisoning: a case report of the use of acetylcysteine. R. D. Scalley, C. S. Conner. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1978 (

8. A dual effect of N-acetylcysteine on acute ethanol-induced liver damage in mice.

An-Lian Wang, Jian-Ping Wang, Hua Wang, Yuan-Hua Chen, Lei Zhao, Long-Shou Wang, Wei Wei, De-Xiang Xu. Hepatol Res. 2006 (

9. The administration of N-acetylcysteine reduces oxidative stress and regulates glutathione metabolism in the blood cells of workers exposed to lead.. Sławomir Kasperczyk, Michał Dobrakowski, Aleksandra Kasperczyk, Alina Ostałowska, Ewa Birkner. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2013 (



1. Hemodynamic and vascular response to resistance exercise with L-arginine.

Christopher A. Fahs, Kevin S. Heffernan, Bo Fernhall. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 (

2. Bolus arginine supplementation affects neither muscle blood flow nor muscle protein synthesis in young men at rest or after resistance exercise. Jason E. Tang, Paul J. Lysecki, Joshua J. Manolakos, Maureen J. MacDonald, Mark A. Tarnopolsky, Stuart M. Phillips. J Nutr. 2011 (

3. Inhibition of purified nitric oxide synthase from rat cerebellum and macrophage by L-arginine analogs.Y. Komori, G. C. Wallace, J. M. Fukuto. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1994 (

4. Metabolism of agmatine (clonidine-displacing substance) by diamine oxidase and the possible implications for studies of imidazoline receptors. A. Holt, G. B. Baker. Prog Brain Res. 1995 (

5. A new crystal form of human diamine oxidase. Aaron P. McGrath, Kimberly M. Hilmer, Charles A. Collyer, David M. Dooley, J. Mitchell Guss. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2010 Feb 1 (

6. Transport and metabolism of agmatine in rat hepatocyte cultures. C. Cabella, G. Gardini, D. Corpillo, G. Testore, S. Bedino, S. P. Solinas, C. Cravanzola, C. Vargiu, M. A. Grillo, S. Colombatto. Eur J Biochem. 2001 Feb (

7. Exposure of rat isolated stomach and rats in vivo to [(14)C]agmatine: accumulation in the stomach wall and distribution in various tissues. Gerhard J. Molderings, Anja Heinen, Sigrid Menzel, Manfred Göthert. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2002 Jun (

8. The clinical antidepressant effect of exogenous agmatine is not reversed by parachlorophenylalanine: a pilot study. Baron Shopsin. Acta Neuropsychiatr. 2013 Apr (

9. Long-term (5 years), high daily dosage of dietary agmatine--evidence of safety: a case report.

Gad M. Gilad, Varda H. Gilad. J Med Food. 2014 Nov (

10. Agmatine reverses pain induced by inflammation, neuropathy, and spinal cord injury. Fairbanks, C. A., Schreiber, K. L., Brewer, K. L., Yu, C.-G., Stone, L. S., Kitto, K. F., Wilcox, G. L. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2000) (

Highly Branched Cyclic Dextrin (HBCD)


  1. Enhancement of swimming endurance in mice by highly branched cyclic dextrin. H. Takii, K. Ishihara, T. Kometani, S. Okada, T. Fushiki. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1999 Dec (

2. A sports drink based on highly branched cyclic dextrin generates few gastrointestinal disorders in untrained men during bicycle exercise. Takii, H., Kometani, T., Nishimura, T., Kuriki, T., and Fushiki, T. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 2004 (

3. Fluids containing a highly branched cyclic dextrin influence

the gastric emptying rate. Takii, H., Takii Nagao, Y., Kometani, T., Nishimura, T., Nakae, T., Kuriki, T., and Fushiki, T. Int. J. Sports Med. 2005 (

4. Factors limiting gastric emptying during rest and exercise. Costill, D.L. and Saltin, B. J. Appl. Physiol. 1974 (

5. The pattern of emptying of the human stomach. J. N. Hunt, W. R. Spurrell. J Physiol. 1951 (

6. Evaluation of Exercise Performance with the Intake of Highly Branched Cyclic Dextrin in Athletes. Shiraki, T., Kometani T., Yoshitani, K., Takata H., Nomura T. Food Science and Technology Research. 2015 (

Vitamins C & D

1. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on postprandial oxidative stress and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients. Zohreh Mazloom, Najmeh Hejazi, Mohammad-Hossein Dabbaghmanesh, Hamid-Reza Tabatabaei, Afsane Ahmadi, Hasti Ansar. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011 Oct 1; 14(19): 900–904.

2. Ascorbic acid protects neurons from injury induced by glutamate and NMDA. M. D. Majewska, J. A. Bell. Neuroreport. 1990 Nov-Dec; 1(3-4): 194–196.

3. High-dose ascorbic acid increases intercourse frequency and improves mood: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Stuart Brody. Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Aug 15; 52(4): 371–374.

4. Ascorbic acid prevents vascular dysfunction induced by oral glucose load in healthy subjects. Sergio De Marchi, Manlio Prior, Anna Rigoni, Sara Zecchetto, Fanny Rulfo, Enrico Arosio. Eur J Intern Med. 2012 Jan; 23(1): 54–57. Published online 2011 Aug 27. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2011.07.019

5. The effect of 2 weeks vitamin C supplementation on immunoendocrine responses to 2.5 h cycling exercise in man. Glen Davison, Michael Gleeson. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Jul; 97(4): 454–461. Published online 2006 May 10. doi: 10.1007/s00421-006-0196-7

6. No effect of antioxidant supplementation on muscle performance and blood redox status adaptations to eccentric training. Anastasios A. Theodorou, Michalis G. Nikolaidis, Vassilis Paschalis, Stilianos Koutsias, George Panayiotou, Ioannis G. Fatouros, Yiannis Koutedakis, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun; 93(6): 1373–1383. Published online 2011 Apr 20. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.009266

7. Vitamin C provision improves mood in acutely hospitalized patients. Michelle Zhang, Line Robitaille, Shaun Eintracht, L. John Hoffer. Nutrition. 2011 May; 27(5): 530–533. Published online 2010 Aug 5. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2010.05.016

8. Influence of acute vitamin C and/or carbohydrate ingestion on hormonal, cytokine, and immune responses to prolonged exercise. Glen Davison, Michael Gleeson. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005 Oct; 15(5): 465–479.

9. Influence of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative and immune changes after an ultramarathon. David C. Nieman, Dru A. Henson, Steve R. McAnulty, Lisa McAnulty, Nathaniel S. Swick, Alan C. Utter, Debra M. Vinci, Shannon J. Opiela, Jason D. Morrow. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2002 May; 92(5): 1970–1977. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00961.2001

10. Independent association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Harald Dobnig, Stefan Pilz, Hubert Scharnagl, Wilfried Renner, Ursula Seelhorst, Britta Wellnitz, Jürgen Kinkeldei, Bernhard O. Boehm, Gisela Weihrauch, Winfried Maerz. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jun 23; 168(12): 1340–1349. doi: 10.1001/archinte.168.12.1340

11. Effect of vitamin D on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Miles D. Witham, M. Adnan Nadir, Allan D. Struthers. J Hypertens. 2009 Oct; 27(10): 1948–1954. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32832f075b

12. A 12-week double-blind randomized clinical trial of vitamin D3 supplementation on body fat mass in healthy overweight and obese women. Amin Salehpour, Farhad Hosseinpanah, Farzad Shidfar, Mohammadreza Vafa, Maryam Razaghi, Sahar Dehghani, Anahita Hoshiarrad, Mahmoodreza Gohari. Nutr J. 2012; 11: 78. Published online 2012 Sep 22. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-78

13. Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren. Mitsuyoshi Urashima, Takaaki Segawa, Minoru Okazaki, Mana Kurihara, Yasuyuki Wada, Hiroyuki Ida. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 May; 91(5): 1255–1260. Published online 2010 Mar 10. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.29094

14. Impact of vitamin D supplementation during a resistance training intervention on body composition, muscle function, and glucose tolerance in overweight and obese adults. Andres E. Carrillo, Michael G. Flynn, Catherine Pinkston, Melissa M. Markofski, Yan Jiang, Shawn S. Donkin, Dorothy Teegarden. Clin Nutr. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 Mar 19. Published in final edited form as: Clin Nutr. 2013 Jun; 32(3): 375–381. Published online 2012 Aug 31. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2012.08.014

15. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in men.

S. Pilz, S. Frisch, H. Koertke, J. Kuhn, J. Dreier, B. Obermayer-Pietsch, E. Wehr, A. Zittermann. Horm Metab Res. 2011 Mar; 43(3): 223–225. Published online 2010 Dec 10. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1269854

16. A systems-based investigation into vitamin D and skeletal muscle repair, regeneration, and hypertrophy. Owens DJ, Sharples AP, Polydorou I, Alwan N, Donovan T, Tang J, Fraser WD, Cooper RG, Morton JP, Stewart C, Close GL. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Dec 15;309(12):E1019-31. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00375.2015.


1. Selective Killing of Cancer Cells by Ashwagandha Leaf Extract and Its Component Withanone Involves ROS Signaling. Nashi Widodo, Didik Priyandoko, Navjot Shah, Renu Wadhwa, Sunil C. Kaul. PLoS One. 2010; 5(10): e13536. Published online 2010 Oct (

2. Adaptogenic and cardioprotective action of ashwagandha in rats and frogs.

J. N. Dhuley. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Apr (

3. Exploratory study to evaluate tolerability, safety, and activity of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in healthy volunteers. Ashwinikumar A. Raut, Nirmala N. Rege, Firoz M. Tadvi, Punita V. Solanki, Kirti R. Kene, Sudatta G. Shirolkar, Shefali N. Pandey, Rama A. Vaidya, Ashok B. Vaidya. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2012 Jul-Sep (

4. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib affects osteoblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo in multiple myeloma patients. Nicola Giuliani, Francesca Morandi, Sara Tagliaferri, Mirca Lazzaretti, Sabrina Bonomini, Monica Crugnola, Cristina Mancini, Eugenia Martella, Luca Ferrari, Antonio Tabilio, Vittorio Rizzoli. Blood. 2007 Jul 1; 110(1): 334–338. Published online 2007 Mar (

5. A Prospective, Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Safety and Efficacy of a High-Concentration Full-Spectrum Extract of Ashwagandha Root in Reducing Stress and Anxiety in Adults. K. Chandrasekhar, Jyoti Kapoor, Sridhar Anishetty. Indian J Psychol Med. 2012 Jul-Sep (

6. Withania somnifera root extract in the regulation of lead-induced oxidative damage in male mouse. S. S. Chaurasia, S. Panda, A. Kar. Pharmacol Res. 2000 Jun (

7. Search for natural products related to regeneration of the neuronal network.

Chihiro Tohda, Tomoharu Kuboyama, Katsuko Komatsu. Neurosignals. 2005 (

8. Neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by withanolide A

Tomoharu Kuboyama, Chihiro Tohda, Katsuko Komatsu. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Apr (

9. Withania somnifera improves semen quality by regulating reproductive hormone levels and oxidative stress in seminal plasma of infertile males. Mohammad Kaleem Ahmad, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Kamla Kant Shukla, Najmul Islam, Singh Rajender, Dama Madhukar, Satya Narain Shankhwar, Sohail Ahmad. Fertil Steril. 2010 Aug; 94(3): 989–996. Published online 2009 Jun (

Krill Oil

  1. Lipid composition of two species of Antarctic krill: Euphausia superba and E. crystallorophias. R. Bottino. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1975 (
  2. Metabolic Effects of Krill Oil are Essentially Similar to Those of Fish Oil but at Lower Dose of EPA and DHA, in Healthy Volunteers. Stine M. Ulven, Bente Kirkhus, Amandine Lamglait, Samar Basu, Elisabeth Elind, Trond Haider, Kjetil Berge, Hogne Vik, Jan I. Pedersen. 2011 (
  3. Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the clinical course of hyperlipidemia. Ruxandra Bunea, Khassan El Farrah, Luisa Deutsch. Altern Med Rev. 2004 (
  4. Metabolic Effects of Krill Oil are Essentially Similar to Those of Fish Oil but at Lower Dose of EPA and DHA, in Healthy Volunteers. Stine M. Ulven, Bente Kirkhus, Amandine Lamglait, Samar Basu, Elisabeth Elind, Trond Haider, Kjetil Berge, Hogne Vik, Jan I. Pedersen. 2011 (
  5. Enhanced cognitive function and antidepressant-like effects after krill oil supplementation in rats. Karin Wibrand, Kjetil Berge, Michaël Messaoudi, Anaïs Duffaud, Debabrata Panja, Clive R Bramham, Lena Burri. Lipids Health Dis. 2013 (
  6. Supplementation with omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and all-rac alpha-tocopherol alone and in combination failed to exert an anti-inflammatory effect in human volunteers. Sonia Vega-López, Nalini Kaul, Sridevi Devaraj, Ru Ya Cai, Bruce German, Ishwarlal Jialal. Metabolism. 2004 (
  7. Influence of very long-chain n-3 fatty acids on plasma markers of inflammation in middle-aged men. Hayati M. Yusof, Elizabeth A. Miles, Philip Calder. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2008 (
  8. The effects of eicosapentaenoic acid-fortified food on inflammatory markers in healthy subjects--A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Shuntaro Fujioka, Kei Hamazaki, Miho Itomura, Mingming Huan, Hiroto Nishizawa, Shigeki Sawazaki, Isao Kitajima, Tomohito Hamazaki. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2006 (
  9. Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis. Michelle Ierna, Alison Kerr, Hannah Scales, Kjetil Berge, Mikko Griinari. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010 (
  10. Evaluation of the effect of Neptune Krill Oil on chronic inflammation and arthritic symptoms. Luisa Deutsch. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 (

Grape Seed Extract & Taurine

1. Effect of grape seed extract on blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.

Brahmesh Sivaprakasapillai, Indika Edirisinghe, Jody Randolph, Francene Steinberg, Tissa Kappagoda. Metabolism. 2009 Dec; 58(12): 1743–1746. Published online 2009 Jul 15. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2009.05.030

2. The effect of grape seed extract on cardiovascular risk markers: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Harm H. H. Feringa, Dayne A. Laskey, Justine E. Dickson, Craig I. Coleman

J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Aug; 111(8): 1173–1181. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2011.05.015

3. Grape seed and red wine polyphenol extracts inhibit cellular cholesterol uptake, cell proliferation, and 5-lipoxygenase activity. Wayne R. Leifert, Mahinda Y. Abeywardena. Nutr Res. 2008 Dec; 28(12): 842–850. Published online 2008 Nov 8. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2008.09.001

4. Effects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity. P. Kar, D. Laight, H. K. Rooprai, K. M. Shaw, M. Cummings. Diabet Med. 2009 May; 26(5): 526–531. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02727.x

5. Effect of a standardized grape seed extract on low-density lipoprotein susceptibility to oxidation in heavy smokers. Giovanni B. Vigna, Fabrizio Costantini, Giancarlo Aldini, Marina Carini, Alberico Catapano, Fabio Schena, Arianna Tangerini, Rosanna Zanca, Egidio Bombardelli, Paolo Morazzoni, et al. Metabolism. 2003 Oct; 52(10): 1250–1257.

6. Specialty Supplements and Prostate Cancer Risk in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) Cohort. Theodore M. Brasky, Alan R. Kristal, Sandi L. Navarro, Johanna W. Lampe, Ruth E. Patterson, Ulrike Peters, Emily White. Nutr Cancer. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2012 May 1. Published in final edited form as: Nutr Cancer. 2011 May; 63(4): 573–582. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2011.553022

7. Effect of taurine supplementation on exercise capacity of patients with heart failure.

Mohamad Reza Beyranvand, Mahshid Kadkhodai Khalafi, Valiollah Dabidi Roshan, Sirrus Choobineh, Saeid Alipour Parsa, Mohammad Asadpour Piranfar. J Cardiol. 2011 May; 57(3): 333–337. Published online 2011 Feb 19. doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2011.01.007

8. The effect of acute taurine ingestion on endurance performance and metabolism in well-trained cyclists. Jane A. Rutherford, Lawrence L. Spriet, Trent Stellingwerff. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010 Aug; 20(4): 322–329.

9. Effect of taurine supplementation on exercise capacity of patients with heart failure.

Mohamad Reza Beyranvand, Mahshid Kadkhodai Khalafi, Valiollah Dabidi Roshan, Sirrus Choobineh, Saeid Alipour Parsa, Mohammad Asadpour Piranfar. J Cardiol. 2011 May; 57(3): 333–337. Published online 2011 Feb 19. doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2011.01.007

10. Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type 1 diabetics. Michael A. Moloney, Rowan G. Casey, David H. O'Donnell, Patricia Fitzgerald, Chris Thompson, David J. Bouchier-Hayes. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2010 Oct; 7(4): 300–310. Published online 2010 Jul 28. doi: 10.1177/1479164110375971

11. The taurine transporter gene and its role in renal development. X. Han, A. M. Budreau, R. W. Chesney. Amino Acids. 2000; 19(3-4): 499–507.

12. Localization of the membrane defect in transepithelial transport of taurine by parallel studies in vivo and in vitro in hypertaurinuric mice. R W Chesney, C R Scriver, F Mohyuddin

J Clin Invest. 1976 Jan; 57(1): 183–193.

13. Adaptive regulation of taurine transport in two continuous renal epithelial cell lines.

D. P. Jones, L. A. Miller, R. W. Chesney. Kidney Int. 1990 Aug; 38(2): 219–226.

14. Perinatal Taurine Alters Arterial Pressure Control and Renal Function in Adult Offspring

Sanya Roysommuti, Wichaporn Lerdweeraphon, Pisamai Malila, Dusit Jirakulsomchok, J. Michael Wyss. Adv Exp Med Biol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2010 Jan 1.

Published in final edited form as: Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009; 643: 145–156.

15. Perinatal taurine depletion increases susceptibility to adult sugar-induced hypertension in rats

Sanya Roysommuti, Atchariya Suwanich, Dusit Jirakulsomchok, J. Michael Wyss

Adv Exp Med Biol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2010 Jan 1. Published in final edited form as: Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009; 643: 123–133. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-75681-3_13

Milk Thistle

1. Biochemical effects of the flavonolignane silibinin on RNA, protein and DNA synthesis in rat livers. J. Sonnenbichler, I. Zetl. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1986 (

2. Milk thistle in liver diseases: past, present, future. Ludovico Abenavoli, Raffaele Capasso, Natasa Milic, Francesco Capasso. Phytother Res. 2010 (

3. Free radicals in tissue damage in liver diseases and therapeutic approach. J. Fehér, I. Láng, G. Deák, A. Cornides, K. Nékám, P. Gergely. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 1986 (

4. Silymarin attenuated the amyloid β plaque burden and improved behavioral abnormalities in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Nakaba Murata, Kazuma Murakami, Yusuke Ozawa, Noriaki Kinoshita, Kazuhiro Irie, Takuji Shirasawa, Takahiko Shimizu. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010; 74(11): 2299–2306. Published online 2010 (

5. The efficacy of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) in the treatment of type II diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. H. Fallah Huseini, B. Larijani, R. Heshmat, H. Fakhrzadeh, B. Radjabipour, T. Toliat, Mohsin Raza. Phytother Res. 2006 (

6. Advances in the use of milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Janice Post-White, Elena J. Ladas, Kara M. Kelly. Integr Cancer Ther. 2007 (


  1. Absorption, distribution, elimination of tea polyphenols in rats. L. Chen, M. J. Lee, H. Li, C. S. Yang. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 (
  2. Food Inhibits the Oral Bioavailability of the Major Green Tea Antioxidant Epigallocatechin Gallate in Humans. Nenad Naumovski, Barbara L. Blades, Paul D. Roach. Antioxidants (Basel) 2015 (
  3. Effects of dosing condition on the oral bioavailability of green tea catechins after single-dose administration of Polyphenon E in healthy individuals. H-H Sherry Chow, Iman A. Hakim, Donna R. Vining, James A. Crowell, James Ranger-Moore, Wade M. Chew, Catherine A. Celaya, Steven R. Rodney, Yukihiko Hara, David S. Alberts. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 (
  4. Inhibitory effects of green tea and grape juice on the phenol sulfotransferase activity of mouse intestines and human colon carcinoma cell line, Caco-2. H. Tamura, M. Matsui. Biol Pharm Bull. 2000 (
  5. Pharmacokinetics of tea catechins after ingestion of green tea and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate by humans: formation of different metabolites and individual variability. Mao-Jung Lee, Pius Maliakal, Laishun Chen, Xiaofeng Meng, Flordeliza Y. Bondoc, Saileta Prabhu, George Lambert, Sandra Mohr, Chung S. Yang. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 (
  6. The green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits telomerase and induces apoptosis in drug-resistant lung cancer cells. David Sadava, Elizabeth Whitlock, Susan E. Kane. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 (
  7. Green tea constituent (--)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits topoisomerase I activity in human colon carcinoma cells. S. J. Berger, S. Gupta, C. A. Belfi, D. M. Gosky, H. Mukhtar. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 (
  8. Growth inhibition, cell-cycle dysregulation, and induction of apoptosis by green tea constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in androgen-sensitive and androgen-insensitive human prostate carcinoma cells. S. Gupta, N. Ahmad, A. L. Nieminen, H. Mukhtar. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2000 (
  9. Effects of catechin enriched green tea on body composition. Hongqiang Wang, Yibo Wen, Yaping Du, Xiuyuan Yan, Hongwei Guo, Jane A. Rycroft, Niels Boon, Eva M. R. Kovacs, David J. Mela. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010 (
  10. Effect of 2 month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormone levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Anna H. Wu, Darcy Spicer, Frank Z. Stanczyk, Chiu-chen Tseng, Chung S. Yang, Malcolm C. Pike. Cancer Prev Res (Phila. 2013 (
  11. Selective inhibition of steroid 5 alpha-reductase isozymes by tea epicatechin-3-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-gallate. S. Liao, R. A. Hiipakka. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 (
  12. Anti-obesity actions of green tea: possible involvements in modulation of the glucose uptake system and suppression of the adipogenesis-related transcription factors. Hitoshi Ashida, Takashi Furuyashiki, Hironobu Nagayasu, Hiroaki Bessho, Hiroyuki Sakakibara, Takashi Hashimoto, Kazuki Kanazawa. Biofactors. 2004 (
  13. A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine improves memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Sang-Ki Park, In-Chul Jung, Won Kyung Lee, Young Sun Lee, Hyoung Kook Park, Hyo Jin Go, Kiseong Kim, Nam Kyoo Lim, Jin Tae Hong, Sun Yung Ly, et al. J Med Food. 2011 (


1. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study of oral Curcuma extract in patients with colorectal cancer. R. A. Sharma, H. R. McLelland, K. A. Hill, C. R. Ireson, S. A. Euden, M. M. Manson, M. Pirmohamed, L. J. Marnett, A. J. Gescher, W. P. Steward. Clin Cancer Res. 2001 (

2. Dose escalation of a curcuminoid formulation. Christopher D Lao, Mack T Ruffin, IV, Daniel Normolle, Dennis D Heath, Sandra I Murray, Joanne M Bailey, Martha E Boggs, James Crowell, Cheryl L Rock, Dean E Brenner. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006 (

3. Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. G. Shoba, D. Joy, T. Joseph, M. Majeed, R. Rajendran, P. S. Srinivas. Planta Med. 1998 (

4. Insulin resistance associated to obesity: the link TNF-alpha. Iria Nieto-Vazquez, Sonia Fernández-Veledo, David K. Krämer, Rocio Vila-Bedmar, Lucia Garcia-Guerra, Margarita Lorenzo. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2008 (

5. The expression of tumor necrosis factor in human adipose tissue. Regulation by obesity, weight loss, and relationship to lipoprotein lipase. Kern, P. A., Saghizadeh, M., Ong, J. M., Bosch, R. J., Deem, R., & Simsolo, R. B. (1995). Journal of Clinical Investigation (

6. Oral supplementation of turmeric decreases proteinuria, hematuria, and systolic blood pressure in patients suffering from relapsing or refractory lupus nephritis: a randomized and placebo-controlled study. Parviz Khajehdehi, Batol Zanjaninejad, Elham Aflaki, Mohamadali Nazarinia, Fariborz Azad, Leila Malekmakan, Gholam-Reza Dehghanzadeh. J Ren Nutr. 2012 (

7. Screening of potential cancer preventing chemicals as aromatase inhibitors in an in vitro assay.

E. L. White, L. J. Ross, V. E. Steele, G. J. Kelloff, D. L. Hill. Anticancer Res. 1999 (

8. Reference profile correlation reveals estrogen-like trancriptional activity of Curcumin.

Beatrice E. Bachmeier, Valentina Mirisola, Francesco Romeo, Luca Generoso, Alessia Esposito, Raffaella Dell'eva, Fabiola Blengio, Peter H. Killian, Adriana Albini, Ulrich Pfeffer. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2010 (

9. Effects of dietary curcumin on glutathione S-transferase and malondialdehyde-DNA adducts in rat liver and colon mucosa: relationship with drug levels. R. A. Sharma, C. R. Ireson, R. D. Verschoyle, K. A. Hill, M. L. Williams, C. Leuratti, M. M. Manson, L. J. Marnett, W. P. Steward, A. Gescher. Clin Cancer Res. 2001 (


  1. Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans. L. E. Banderet, H. R. Lieberman. Brain Res Bull. 1989 (
  2. The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. D. F. Neri, D. Wiegmann, R. R. Stanny, S. A. Shappell, A. McCardie, D. L. McKay. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1995 (
  3. Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with monoamine amino acid precursors and organic cation transporter assay interpretation. Hinz, M., Stein, A., Neff, R., Weinberg, R., & Uncini, T. (2011). Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. (
  4. Neurochemical and behavioral consequences of acute, uncontrollable stress: effects of dietary tyrosine. H. Lehnert, D. K. Reinstein, B. W. Strowbridge, R. J. Wurtman. Brain Res. 1984 (
  5. Effects of coping behavior in different warning signal conditions on stress pathology in rats. J. M. Weiss. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1971 (
  6. The brain and fatigue: new opportunities for nutritional interventions? Romain Meeusen, Phil Watson, Jiri Dvorak. J Sports Sci. 2006 (
  7. Tyrosine administration reduces blood pressure and enhances brain norepinephrine release in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Sved, A. F., Fernstrom, J. D., & Wurtman, R. J. (1979). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (
  8. Tyrosine reverses a cold-induced working memory deficit in humans. D. Shurtleff, J. R. Thomas, J. Schrot, K. Kowalski, R. Harford Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994 (

Citrus Bergamont

  1. Bergamot Reduces Plasma Lipids, Atherogenic Small Dense LDL, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Subjects with Moderate Hypercholesterolemia: A 6 Months Prospective Study. Toth, P. P., Patti, A. M., Nikolic, D., Giglio, R. V., Castellino, G., Biancucci, T., … Rizzo, M. (2015). Frontiers in Pharmacology. (
  2. Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism. Tsukasa Sakurada, Hirokazu Mizoguchi, Hikari Kuwahata, Soh Katsuyama, Takaaki Komatsu, Luigi Antonio Morrone, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti, Giacinto Bagetta, Shinobu Sakurada. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011 (
  3. Flavonoid Fraction of Bergamot Juice Reduces LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response through SIRT1-Mediated NF-κB Inhibition in THP-1 Monocytes. Risitano, R., Currò, M., Cirmi, S., Ferlazzo, N., Campiglia, P., Caccamo, D., … Navarra, M. (2014). PLoS ONE, 9(9), e107431. (
  4. The protective effect of bergamot oil extract on lecitine-like oxyLDL receptor-1 expression in balloon injury-related neointima formation. Vincenzo Mollace, Salvatore Ragusa, Iolanda Sacco, Carolina Muscoli, Francesca Sculco, Valeria Visalli, Ernesto Palma, Saverio Muscoli, Luigi Mondello, Paola Dugo, Domenicantonio Rotiroti, Francesco Romeo. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2008 (
  5. Hypolipemic and hypoglycaemic activity of bergamot polyphenols: from animal models to human studies. Vincenzo Mollace, Iolanda Sacco, Elzbieta Janda, Claudio Malara, Domenica Ventrice, Carmen Colica, Valeria Visalli, Saverio Muscoli, Salvatore Ragusa, Carolina Muscoli, et al. Fitoterapia. 2011 (
  6. Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction Enhances Rosuvastatin-Induced Effect on LDL-cholesterol, LOX-1 Expression and Protein Kinase B Phosphorylation in Patients With Hyperlipidemia. Micaela Gliozzi 1 , Ross Walker , Saverio Muscoli , Cristiana Vitale , Santo Gratteri , Cristina Carresi , Vincenzo Musolino , Vanessa Russo , Elzbieta Janda , Salvatore Ragusa , Antonio Aloe , Ernesto Palma , Carolina Muscoli , Franco Romeo , Vincenzo Mollace. Research Centre for Food Safety & Health 2013. (

Boswellia Serrata

  1. Determination of major boswellic acids in plasma by high-pressure liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Kathleen Gerbeth, Juergen Meins, Simon Kirste, Felix Momm, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Mona Abdel-Tawab. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2011 (
  2. Regulation of vascular responses to inflammation: inducible matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells is sensitive to antiinflammatory Boswellia. Sashwati Roy, Savita Khanna, Alluri V. Krishnaraju, Gottumukkala V. Subbaraju, Taharat Yasmin, Debasis Bagchi, Chandan K. Sen. 2006 (
  3. A lipoxygenase inhibitor in breast cancer brain metastases. D. F. Flavin. J Neurooncol. 2007 (
  4. Regulation of vascular responses to inflammation: inducible matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells is sensitive to antiinflammatory Boswellia. Sashwati Roy, Savita Khanna, Alluri V. Krishnaraju, Gottumukkala V. Subbaraju, Taharat Yasmin, Debasis Bagchi, Chandan K. Sen. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006 (
  5. Isolation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibitors from frankincense using a molecularly imprinted polymer. Achillia Lakka, Ilias Mylonis, Sophia Bonanou, George Simos, Andreas Tsakalof. Invest New Drugs. 2011 (
  6. Hypoxia inducible factor-1: a novel target for cancer therapy. Vladimir E. Belozerov, Erwin G. Van Meir. Anticancer Drugs. 2005 (
  7. Response of radiochemotherapy-associated cerebral edema to a phytotherapeutic agent, H15. J. R. Streffer, M. Bitzer, M. Schabet, J. Dichgans, M. Weller. Neurology. 2001 (
  8. Evaluation of the efficacy of ginger, Arabic gum, and Boswellia in acute and chronic renal failure. Mona Fouad Mahmoud, Abdalla Ahmed Diaai, Fahmy Ahmed. Ren Fail. 2012 (
  9. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibiting constituents from Eriobotrya japonica revealed by bioactivity-guided isolation and computational approaches. Judith M. Rollinger, Denise V. Kratschmar, Daniela Schuster, Petra H. Pfisterer, Christel Gumy, Evelyne M. Aubry, Sarah Brandstötter, Hermann Stuppner, Gerhard Wolber, Alex Odermatt. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 (
  10. Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study. I. Gupta, V. Gupta, A. Parihar, S. Gupta, R. Lüdtke, H. Safayhi, H. P. Ammon. Eur J Med Res. 1998 (
  11. Herbal interventions for chronic asthma in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Christopher E. Clark, Elizabeth Arnold, Toby J. Lasserson, Taixiang Wu. Prim Care Respir J. 2010 (
  12. TRPV3 and TRPV4 mediate warmth-evoked currents in primary mouse keratinocytes. Man-Kyo Chung, Hyosang Lee, Atsuko Mizuno, Makoto Suzuki, Michael J. Caterina. J Biol Chem. 2004 (
  13. TRPV3 is a temperature-sensitive vanilloid receptor-like protein. G. D. Smith, M. J. Gunthorpe, R. E. Kelsell, P. D. Hayes, P. Reilly, P. Facer, J. E. Wright, J. C. Jerman, J-P Walhin, L. Ooi, et al. Nature. 2002 (
  14. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study of the efficacy and safety of 5-Loxin® for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Krishanu Sengupta, Krishnaraju V Alluri, Andey Rama Satish, Simanchala Mishra, Trimurtulu Golakoti, Kadainti VS Sarma, Dipak Dey, Siba P Raychaudhuri. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008 (
  15. The 5-lipoxygenase/leukotriene pathway in obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease. Marcos Martínez-Clemente, Joan Clària, Esther Titos. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011 (
  16. Mechanism of 5-lipoxygenase inhibition by acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid. H. Safayhi, E. R. Sailer, H. P. Ammon. Mol Pharmacol. 1995 (



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