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The Roman army, with 10,000 soliders, outnumbered the Muslims 3:1 at the Battle of Mutah. Some of the Muslims feared the large army and wanted to retreat, but the senior companions bolstered their courage. Prophet Muhammad had appointed a leader for the army, with two backup leaders in case the first one was martyred. This was a hard battle. Jaffer…
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The Battle of Mu'tah was triggered when a messenger Prophet Muhammad sent to Ghassani Shurahbil was murdered. This was a declaration of war. While Prophte Muhammad himself didn't participate in this battle, thanks to the treaty of Hudaybiyya he was able to send 3000 Muslims to fight without compromising the securit of Medina. As the army departed, …
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Prophet Muhammad led the Muslims on a second attempt at Umra, thet qazaa for the last one which they couldn't complete. Rumor spread among the Mushrikeen that the Muslims were weakened, so the Prophet instructed his followers to show extra strength and bravado to dispel that notion. During the Umra: - Meccans removed their idols from the kaba for t…
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Prophet Muhammad had given the garden of Fadak to his daughter Fatima, but after his passing it snatched away from her by Abu Bakr and Umar. This lecture explains: - How Fadak became the Prophet's property - Why he gifted it to Lady Fatima - Fadak was a source of immense wealth, generating enough income to fund an army. - How Umar adviced Abu Bakr …
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The victory at Khaybar changed the lives of the Muslim community and became a source of financial strength for them. The lecture includes: - The surrender treaty, where the Jews were allowed to remain on Khaybar in return for a share of the harvest - How the prophet distributed the khums from the war - The Muhajireen using their share of khums to r…
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The Muslims marched to the Fort of Khaybar, attack and defeat it's treacherous occupants. Along the way, various miracles occur: - An assassin attempts to kill Prophet Muhammad, but he miraciously is suddenly mentally handicapped. - Imam Ali's unable to fight due to an illness in his eyes. Prophet Muhammad heals him and Imam Ali leads the Muslims t…
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Khaybar was manned by Jewish tribes that had previously reacted treasonously against the Muslims and had been exiled from Medina in turn. They had already attacked the Muslims once, by participating in the Battle of Khandak, and Prophet Muhammad received intel that those Jewish tribes were again planning to ally with another pagan tribes to attack …
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Prophet Muhammad continues his outreach to foreign leaders, sending messengrs to the Persian emperor Khosrow II and the Coptic ruler Muqawqis of Alexandria. The outreach teaches us: - Islam was always meant to be globalized, not just for the Arabs. We need to also think deeply about how to universalize the messaging - The way people respond to the …
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With the repreieve provided by the Treaty of Hudaybiyya, Prophet Muhammad can focus on spreading Islam by doing dawah to surrounding leaders. This lecture covers encounters with two prominent leaders: 1. The Abysinnian king Najashi, who converted to Islam 2. The Roman emperor Heraclius, who questioned Abu Sufyan and acertained Prophet Muhammad's le…
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The many of the Muslims had seen the Treaty of Hudaybiyya as a humiliating loss, yet Prophet Muhammad knew the treaty paved the way for their ultimate success. This lecture discusses the various ways this treaty helped the Muslims, along with how Allah sent Surah Al-Fath right afterwards to bolden the Muslims and help them understand the victory wh…
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The Quraysh sent Suhayl ibn Amr to negotiate the Treaty of Hudaybiyya with Prophet Muhammad. Suhayl had a vested interest in the outcome since two of his sons had converted to Islam, one of whom he was keeping captive. The Muslim masses were surprised by the treaty though, which they saw as an insult. Umar ibn Al-Khattab was particularly outraged, …
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While camped outside Mecca at Hudaybiyya, the Prophet Muhammad sends an emissary into the city. The Quraysh kill his camel, and he's barely allowed to leave. The Prophet then tries to send Umar ibn Al-Khattab, but he refuses out of fear. Uthman, who had strong tribal ties with people in the city, is sent instead. However, he's prevented from leavin…
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Prophet Muhammad saw a dream of the Muslims entering the Ka'bah to worship, and he instructs his followers to begin preparations to go to Mecca. They would go in peace, without arms. The call to go for this pilgrimage turns into an opportunity to expose more of the Munafiqeen as they make excuses to avoid the seemingly dangerous journey. When the Q…
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The tribe of Bani Mustaliq were planning to launch a surprise attack against the Muslims, and rumor of it reached Prophet Muhammad. He sent a companion named Buraydah ibn al-Husayb to investigate. The rumor was confirmed. This lecture covers: - The attack Prophet Muhammad led in response - The secret hypocrites who joined this battle - The battle's…
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Sa'd was a very high ranking companion and a shaheed. Prophet Muhammad took much more care during his burial than he normally would, yet he still chided someone who said that he would go straight to heaven. Lesson: If you have bad akhlaq, even the prophet cannot help you against the consequences Later, Prophet Muhammad proposed Zaynab bint Jahash m…
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After Bani Qurayzah surrendered, the punishment for their betrayal had to be decided. This lecture covers: - The penalty set by Bani Qurayzah's pre-Islamic ally, Sa'd ibn Mu'adh, and Prophet Muhammad's reaction to it - Why the punishment was so harsh - How even Bani Qurayzah's tribal custom at the time was to treat treachery with a similar punishme…
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After the enemy coalition gave up and retreated from Medina, the Muslims had to deal with the Banu Qurayzah's treachery during the seige. This lecture covers: - Events during the three weeks the Muslims beseiged Bani Qurayzah - Options Bani Qurayzah considered in response - Their attemps to find allies to support them during their surrender, who wo…
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Multiple factors came together to demoralize the Qurayshi coalition and got them to retreat, ending the battle: - Imam Ali's victory over Amr ibn al-Wadd - Shortage of food and fodder. They had prepared for quick battle, not a month-long seige - A violent storm that trashed the Qurayshi camp - Distrust sown between the kuffar and the jews by a secr…
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The Qurayshi army arrive in Medina and are stumped by the trench, and persuade the Jewish tribe of Banu Quraydha in Medina and convince them to betray their oath of neutrality The Muslims stand vigilant day and night to defend the trench, even missing their obligatory prayers. Surah 33, Al Ahzaab captures the tension, covering the hypocrites who ex…
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Prophet Muhammad led by example, digging the trench harder than anyone else. When Fatima cooked some bread and brought it to him, she learned that it was the first thing the prophet had eaten in three days. During the digging, Imam Ali also dug relentlessly and the Prophet praised him saying "May my father be ransomed for the one who digs", highlig…
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All the Muslim's enemies band together in a final attempt to defeat them. In the year 5 AH, the two banished Jewish tribes ally with the Meccans to mobilizing the masses for the ultimate battle against the Muslims, in what would later be known as the Battle of the Azhab, aka Battle of Khandaq. The Quraysh had been humbled by their constant failure …
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Sheikh Azhar Nasser explores additional Sunni counter arguments to the Shia claim that the Verse of Purification (Quran 33:33) The discussion covers: - Claims that the wives were already purified - Claims that the actions of the wives had no impact on the prophetic household - Claims that the Quran uses "ahl" to refer to wives in other places - Que…
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Sheikh Azhar Nasser explores Sunni counter arguments to the Shia claim that the Verse of Purification (Quran 33:33) The discussion covers: - Claims that the context of the verse being different - Claims that the verses include all of Bani Hashim - Claims that the verse doesn't prove infallibility The Q&A also answers: - Why the Imams sometimes gave…
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Continuing the identification of who is meant by the holy Ahl al-Bayt, Sheikh Azhar Nasser uses hadiths from Sunni sources that are accepted by both Shias and Sunnis to compare Shia and Sunni viewpoints. Hadith include: - (Jame-ut-Tirmidi) Hadith al Kisa - the hadith of the cloak - (Sahih Muslim) Zahid ibn Akram's explanation of why the wives are n…
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Who does the Quran refer to when it says Ahlul Bayt? Sheikh Azhar Nasser compares Sunni and Shia viewpoints based on hadit from Sunni sources. The three main perspectives are: - It includes the Prophet's wives, Bani Hashim, and the Holy Five (Ali, Fatima, Hassan, Hussain, and Prophet Muhammad) - It includes just Bani Hashim and the Holy Five - It i…
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Continuing the comparison of Shia and Sunni views on Aisha bint Abu Bakr, Sheikh Azhar compares Shia and Sunni perspectives on hadiths that cause each sect to have their varying opinions on Aisha. Hadiths covered include: - (Bukhari/Sahih Muslim) Prophet Muhammad apparently pointing to Aisha's house and saying "fitna is from here" - (Bukhari) Proph…
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Comparing the Shia and Sunni views on Aisha, the daughter of Abu Bakr and third wife of Prophet Muhammad. Sheikh Azhar also explains why the two sects may have such divergent views of her. The lecture dives into: - Why Shia's believe Aisha was in her late teens when she married Prophet Muhammad (vs the Sunni narrative of being 9 years old) - How Ai…
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At the end of the battle of Badr, Abu Sufyan had challenged the Muslims to a rematch a year later. This rematch was known as the Second Battle of Badr, and after seeing how much stronger the Muslims had gotten the Meccans were demoralized and decided to march back to Mecca. And so no battle never actually took place. Around this time period many of…
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This lecture covers: - The gradual prohibition of Alcohol - Passing of Fatima bint Asad (Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib's mother) - Birth of Imam Husayn - Prophet Muhammad's Marriage to Umm Salamah Lecture notes available at http://www.why-quran.org/?p=528. Subscribe at http://www.why-quran.org/subscribe to watch the lectures live and participate in the Q&…
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Prophet Muhammad approached the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadhir to help the Muslims make peace between themselves and another Jewish tribe, only to discover at the last minute that Banu Nadhir was planning to assassinate him. Why? The Banu Nadir couldn't accept a gentile as the final messenger of God. They considered it degrading to be subservient to a…
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After the Battle of Uhud: - Quraysh mutilate the bodies of Muslims - Prophet Muhammad sends a reconnissance mission to see if the Quraysh will invade Medina or return to Mecca - Various verses of the Quran are revealed to console the Muslims and instruct them on how to recover from the losses - The Meccans decide to come back to finish off the Musl…
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As the Quraysh fled, the archers watching the army's back rushed to gather the spoils of war. The enemy noticed this and launched a cavalry counter attack from the unprotected rear, changing the tide of the war. Lecture notes available at http://www.why-quran.org/?p=497. Subscribe at http://www.why-quran.org/subscribe to watch the lectures live and…
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With archers defending their backs, Ali ibn Abi Talib starts the skirmish with one on one battles, defeating nine opponents in a row. Quickly, the Qurayshi army becomes demoralized and starts fleeing. Lecture notes available at http://www.why-quran.org/?p=493. Subscribe at http://www.why-quran.org/subscribe to watch the lectures live and participat…
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- The Muslims marched towards the invaders with an army of 1000 men. - Munafiqs revealed: Abdullah ibn Ubayy deserted the army and left with 300 of the men, the munafiqs. - Battle tactics used by Prophet Muhammad - Fortications abandoned: The prophet gave the archerers unambiguous instructions to maintain a defensive position, yet they were ignored…
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Both sides prepare for the Battle of Uhud soon after Imam Hasan's birth: - The battle was instigated by the Meccan's desire for revenge, the insult they felt from Islam, and the economic strain they had landed under - Abu Sufyan's attempts at raising an army - Hind's support of the army - Prophet Muhammad's investigation when an undercover Muslim i…
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The events that occurred after the Battle of Badr, which led to the Battle of Uhud: - The Expedition of Qarqarat Al-Kudr, where nomadic tribes started hostilities against the Muslims - The Expedition of Sawiq, where Abu Sufyan led an assault against Medina - The Qaradah Raid, where the Muslims raided a Meccan caravan - The death of Uthman ibn Madh'…
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While most Muslima and Jewish tribes in Medina were agriculture based, the Jewish tribe of Banu Qaynuqa consisted mainly of craftsmen and blacksmiths, making them highly militarized. The tax-free marketplace, along with the Muslim's conflict with the Meccans (one of Banu Qaynuqa's main customer base) threatened Banu Qaynuqa's financial interests. T…
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How and why the qiblah was changed from Jersalem to the Kaaba: - The Jewish tribes had been mocking Muslims for worshipping towards Jerusalem - Quranic verses in Surah Baqarah explain why the Qiblah was changed - Quran's criticism of the people who had enmity in their hearts against Muslims. Lecture notes available at http://www.why-quran.org/?p=47…
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The immediate aftermath of the Battle of Badr, including: - How the prisoners of war were treated after the battle - Revelation of Surat al-Anfal, which included verses on warfare - How the spoils were divided Lecture notes available at http://www.why-quran.org/?p=466. Subscribe at http://www.why-quran.org/subscribe to watch the lectures live and p…
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Warfare during Battle of Badr and the Muslim's victory: - The story of Umayr ibn Al-Humam, who longed for a martyrdom - The two youth who killed Abu Jahl, and how they attacked him - Abu Jahl's arrogance even with his dying breaths - Umayyah ibn Khalaf's attempt to seek refuge once defeat was imminent - Lessons taught after the battle Lecture notes…
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The Battle of Badr begins: - Prophet Muhammad tried to avoid hostilities, and some of the Quraysh wanted to avoid fighting as well. But Abu Jahl instigated the conflict forwards. - Fighting began with three one on one skirmishes - The miracle of the prophet throwing pebbles towards the Quraysh and blinding them Lecture notes available at http://www…
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The Quraysh set out with a huge army, intending to intimidate not just the Muslims but the rest of the Arabs as well. This lecture includes: - Quraysh leaders who were afraid of going to war - Military tactics leveraged by the Propeht Muhammad before the battle - Attributes needed to be a leader - A miracle Allah sent to give the Muslims an advanta…
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The Meccans wanted to bolster their military situation, not okay with the Prophet Muhammad simply relocating to Medina. The Meccans had invested heavily in a caravan led by Abu Sufyan which would let them build up their military. Prophet Muhammad intended to intercept this caravan on it's way back from Syria. However, Abu Sufyan discoveres this pla…
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Imam Ali and Lady Fatima got married in the 2nd year AH. This lecture covers: - Lady Fatima's age at marriage (Shia vs Sunni views) - The people who unsuccessfully proposed to Fatima (and their reactions to the rejection) - Imam Ali's bridal gift for Lady Fatima - Their valima (the wedding feast) Lecture notes available at http://www.why-quran.org/…
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This lecture covers how the prophet changed Yathrib's name to Medina, the rise of hypocrisy in Medina as political expediency caused people to convert without having any Islamic conviction, the first time Muslims were given permission to fight and why it was granted, and the first five military expeditions of the Muslims. Practical Lessons: 1. No v…
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The Prophet Muhammad had been invited to Medina to quell tensions in the city. With a few months of arriving, he created a social contract between the different tribes in they city, specifying the behaviors expected from each group: Ansar, Muhajireen, Jews, and Polythiests Practical Lessons: 1. The importance of writing down contracts. This was an …
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After Prophet Muhammad settled in Abu Ayyub al-Ansari's home in Medina, he purchased the lot next to it and started building a masjid there. This became known as Al Masjid an-Nabawi (the Prophet's Mosque) and Masjid al-Haram (the Sacred Mosque). Azan was legislated soon after, and within half a year after hijra the Second Pact of Brotherhood was ma…
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Prophet Muhammad's arrival in Quba, the building of the Quba Masjid, and how Prophet Muhammad let Allah guide him through his camel to find a place to stay at in Medina, with the camel stopping at Abu Ayyub al Ansari's home. Lecture by Sheikh Azhar Nasser Lecture notes available at http://www.why-quran.org/blog/30-hijra-the-first-masjid/ Subscribe …
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When Prophet Muhammad learned about the assassination plot against him, he choose his most trustworthy companion to be the decoy: Ali ibn Abi Talib. Why did Abu Bakr migrated with the Prophet? Sunni vs Shia views on the merits of the Quranic verse on Abu Bakr during this hijrat (Quran 9:40), and the first instance of enmity towards the prophet expr…
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Medina (Yathrib) was ideally suited to be the new home to the Prophet's message. This lecture describes what it was that made Medina a good location, the gradual emigration of Muslims to Medina along with the challenges they faced, the first of the two brotherhood pacts made by the muslims, and the plot to assissinate the prophet. By Sheikh Azhar N…
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