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Every week, host Anton Vialtsin (California attorney and YouTuber) discusses legal cases from the Supreme Court, 9th Circuit, and California State Courts. We focus on the First, Second, Fourth, Fifth, and Eighth Amendments. We make predictions and scrutinize the law. Anton Vialtsin handled over a hundred federal criminal cases from initial client interviews through sentencing. He has an in-depth knowledge of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, the Federal Criminal Codes and Rules, mandatory-m ...
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Ninth Circuit Holds Felon-in-Possession Unconstitutional as to Non-Violent Offenders After Bruen May 9th 2024, in United States v. Duarte, No. 22-50048 (9th Cir. May 9, 2024), a split panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit held that under New York State Rifle & Pistol Ass’n v. Bruen, 597 U.S. 1 (2022), § 922(g)(1) violate…
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The Fourth Amendment proscribes unreasonable searches and seizures, but it permits a warrantless search to which the suspect consents. “When conducting a warrantless search of a vehicle based on consent, officers have no more authority to search than it appears was given by the consent.” Thus, it is “important to take account of any express or impl…
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When Andres Lopez–Cruz (“Lopez”) gave a border patrol agent permission to “look in” or “search” the two cell phones he had with him, the agent did not ask him whether he would also consent to the agent's answering any incoming calls. Nonetheless, when one of the phones rang while the agent was conducting his search, he answered it, passing himself …
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Agent Brenneman told Mr. Harrison they were there because, "our office received an anonymous phone call there were drugs and bombs at this apartment," and he asked if Mr. Harrison "would mind if we look around the apartment." Id. at 19. The government concedes the ATF had no reason to believe there were bombs in the apartment, but Agent Brenneman t…
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Officer Harold Cheirs and his partner, Officer Robinson, tried to serve an arrest warrant on Phyllis Brown at 3171 Hendricks Avenue in Memphis, Tennessee. When they got to Hendricks Avenue, they could not find a house with a 3171 address. They eventually found two houses on opposite sides of the street with a 3170 address, at which point, you might…
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Nora next contends that, even if the officers had probable cause to arrest him, they arrested him in violation of Payton v. New York, 445 U.S. 573, 100 S.Ct. 1371, 63 L.Ed.2d 639 (1980). The Court held in Payton that the Fourth Amendment forbids arresting a suspect inside his home unless the police first obtain an arrest warrant or an exception to …
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Robertson: Robertson encounters a fundamental obstacle: standing. A defendant must show standing even if the government has not pressed the issue in the district court. United States v. Nadler,698 F.2d 995, 998 (9th Cir. 1983). Fourth Amendment rights are personal rights which may not be vicariously asserted. Rakas v. Illinois,439 U.S. 128, 133-34,…
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The district court found inexplicable discrepancies between, on the one hand, the events as depicted in an audio recording and reports of agents nearly contemporaneous with the arrest and, on the other hand, later statements, reports and testimony of the agents. Accordingly, the district court discredited the later statements, reports and testimony…
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Warrantless searches by law enforcement officers “are per se unreasonable under the Fourth Amendment—subject only to a few specifically established and well-delineated exceptions.” Katz v. United States,389 U.S. 347, 357, 88 S.Ct. 507, 19 L.Ed.2d 576 (1967). Under the automobile exception to the Fourth Amendment's warrant requirement, “[t]he police…
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The Supreme Court has held that police need no warrant to arrest a felony suspect on probable cause in a public place; United States v. Watson, 1976, 423 U.S. 411, 96 S.Ct. 820, 46 L.Ed.2d 598; United States v. Santana, 1976, 427 U.S. 38, 96 S.Ct. 2406, 49 L.Ed.2d 300. In Coolidge the Court stated in dicta that "the notion that the warrantless entr…
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This appeal stemmed from two individuals' cross-country car trip. Inside the car were secret compartments containing bundles of methamphetamine. But to the casual observer, the car looked like any other car. The driver apparently knew about the secret compartments of methamphetamine, but did the passenger? It's possible, but there was no evidence t…
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The Supreme Court itself has recognized that distinguishing a Terry investigative stop from a de facto arrest "may in some instances create difficult line-drawing problems." United States v. Sharpe,470 U.S. 675, 685, 105 S.Ct. 1568, 1575, 84 L.Ed.2d 605 (1985). As noted by the Court in the seminal case of Terry v. Ohio,392 U.S. 1, 30, 88 S.Ct. 1868…
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The Constitution's Fourth Amendment provides that "no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized." U.S. Const. amend. IV. A "state search warrant being challenged in a federal court must be judged by federal constitutio…
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The Fourth Amendment's protections extend to brief investigatory stops that fall short of a traditional arrest. Ramirez v. City of Buena Park, 560 F.3d 1012, 1020 (9th Cir. 2009) (citing United States v. Arvizu, 534 U.S. 266, 273, 122 S.Ct. 744, 151 L.Ed.2d 740 (2002)). Courts must determine, based on the totality of the circumstances, whether a po…
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In sum, under the most recent cases a seizure occurs only if: (1) a reasonable person would feel, under all the circumstances, he could not disregard the police inquiries and go about his business; (2) the restraints imposed upon him result from the police conduct itself rather than the happenstance of where the encounter occurred; and (3) the pers…
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A Fourth Amendment seizure occurs "when physical force is used to restrain movement or when a person submits to an officer’s ‘show of authority.’ " United States v. Brodie , 742 F.3d 1058, 1061 (D.C. Cir. 2014) (quoting California v. Hodari D. , 499 U.S. 621, 626, 111 S.Ct. 1547, 113 L.Ed.2d 690 (1991) ). A show of authority sufficient to constitut…
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For purposes of the Fourth Amendment, a seizure occurs when a law enforcement officer, by means of physical force or show of authority, in some way restrains the liberty of a citizen. Florida v. Bostick, 501 U.S. 429, 434 (1991). A police officer has restrained the liberty of the citizen if, "taking into account all of the circumstances surrounding…
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Kaupp was arrested within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment before the detectives began to question him. A seizure of the person within the meaning of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments occurs when, "taking into account all of the circumstances surrounding the encounter, the police conduct would 'have communicated to a reasonable person that he…
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On Sunday December 15, 1985 at 3:30 p.m., Deputy Sheriff Hedrick was on routine patrol in a rural neighborhood. Deputy Hedrick observed Kerr by a car parked near a barn located on a residential property. The car's trunk was open, exposing cardboard boxes. Because he knew of several recent residential burglaries in the area, Deputy Hedrick made a U-…
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Following the unexpected death of Defendant Walt Shrum’s common law wife at the couple’s home around 5:30 a.m. on March 11, 2015, police officers in Kingman, Kansas "secured" the home, prohibiting Defendant access. Approximately three hours later and without access to his home, Defendant signed a consent to search form permitting an investigator fr…
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1. Know Your Rights: Can Cops Inquire About Probation/Parole in Routine Traffic Stops? Driver Pat-Downs https://youtu.be/98LFwrhsMHE 2. Is it Legal for Police to Enter an Attached Garage Without a Warrant to Arrest a Drug Trafficker? We can conceive of no reason to distinguish a garage, where people spend time, work, and store their possessions, fr…
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The Supreme Court held in United States v. Jacobsen, 466 U.S. 109, 104 S.Ct. 1652, 80 L.Ed.2d 85 (1984), that a Fourth Amendment "`seizure' of property occurs when there is some meaningful interference with an individual's possessory interests in that property." Id. at 113, 104 S.Ct. 1652. In Va Lerie, this court, en banc, applied Jacobsen in the c…
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Local police suspected Billy Greenwood was dealing drugs from his residence. Because the police did not have enough evidence for a warrant to search his home, they searched the garbage bags Greenwood had left at the curb for pickup. The police uncovered evidence of drug use, which was then used to obtain a warrant to search the house. That search t…
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The Fourth Amendment protects "[t]he right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures." U.S. Const. amend. IV. But individuals "subject to a warrantless, suspicionless search condition have ‘severely diminished expectations of privacy by virtue of their status alone.’ " Unite…
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The Government obtained the civil forfeiture of a 1986 Dodge Ram Charger and $277,000 in U.S. currency found in this vehicle, pursuant to 21 U.S.C. § 881 (1988). Claimant Montes appeals on the ground that evidence discovered in the search of the Dodge Ram Charger should have been suppressed because it was obtained in violation of his Fourth Amendme…
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"The Fourth Amendment is a vital safeguard of the right of the citizen to be free from unreasonable governmental intrusions into any area in which he has a reasonable expectation of privacy." Winston v. Lee, 470 U.S. 753, 767, 105 S.Ct. 1611, 84 L.Ed.2d 662 (1985) (citations omitted). As the parties agree, Monghur, at least initially, held a reason…
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The Fourth Amendment protects "[t]he right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures." U.S. Const. amend. IV. Whether a search is reasonable will depend upon its nature and all of the circumstances surrounding it, United States v. Montoya de Hernandez, 473 U.S. 531, 537, 105…
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Sandoval's expectation of privacy was also objectively reasonable. In LaDuke v. Nelson, 762 F.2d 1318, 1326 n. 11, 1332 n. 19 (9th Cir. 1985), we held that a person can have an objectively reasonable expectation of privacy in a tent on private property. In Gooch, 6 F.3d at 677, we extended that holding to find a reasonable expectation of privacy in…
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Gooch must have had both a subjective and an objectively reasonable expectation of privacy in the tent. Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 361, 88 S.Ct. 507, 516, 19 L.Ed.2d 576 (1967). SEARCH: We have already established that a person can have an objectively reasonable expectation of privacy in a tent on private property. LaDuke v. Nelson,762 F.…
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Nowhere is the protective force of the fourth amendment more powerful than it is when the sanctity of the home is involved. The sanctity of a person's home, perhaps our last real retreat in this technological age, lies at the very core of the rights which animate the amendment. Therefore, we have been adamant in our demand that absent exigent circu…
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The United States appealed from orders of the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington, Donald S. Voorhees, J., granting defendants' suppression motions. The Court of Appeals, J. Blaine Anderson, Circuit Judge, held that action of airline employee in opening a “Speed Pak” was that of a government agent where only reason h…
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Mr. Luis Alfonso Leon was stopped by law enforcement after he was observed illegally driving in a passing lane. During the traffic stop, the officer began to suspect Mr. Leon was trafficking drugs. A search of his vehicle uncovered seventy-six pounds of methamphetamine, and Mr. Leon was charged with one count of possessing methamphetamine with inte…
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The panel affirmed the district court’s denial of a motion to suppress evidence discovered following a traffic stop, and remanded for the district court to conform the written judgment to its oral pronouncement of sentence, in a case in which Xzavione Taylor entered a conditional guilty plea to being a felon in possession of a firearm. The panel he…
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Most drivers do not know that they have a right to deny consent,and troopers are more than happy to exploit their lack of knowledge of their legal rights. Even though the law requires that consent be knowing, intelligent and voluntary, troopers don’t generally let such niceties stand in their way. For drivers who are not initially forthcoming with …
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At approximately 1:00 a.m. on October 14, 2020, officers from the New York City Police Department (NYPD) encountered Defendant Michael Hagood near a housing complex managed by the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) in the Bronx. Mr. Hagood was notably wearing a fanny pack slung across his chest while standing beside a double-parked vehicle. Th…
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In Steagald v. United States, 451 U.S. 204 (1981), the Supreme Court held that, in the absence of valid consent or exigent circumstances, warrantless searches are per se unreasonable and violate the Fourth Amendment. Id. at 211, 101 S.Ct. 1642. Here, the only warrant the police possessed at the time they entered Cruz's home was an old warrant for M…
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"[W]hen an officer has probable cause to believe evidence of a crime will be found specifically in the passenger compartment of a vehicle, and no other subsequent discovery or information provides further probable cause to believe the evidence will be found in the trunk, an officer’s search of the trunk exceeds the permissible scope of a warrantles…
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· Five thousand is the largest isogrammic numeral in the English language. · It has been estimated that there were around forty million people worldwide by 5000 BC · CULTURE 5000 – THE WORLDS LONGEST PAINTING o 201.5 meters long o And it has a bunch of fish drawn o 5,339 to be precise. · Things that weight 5000 pounds o Average White Rhinos o Whale…
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Alexander Hillel Treisman appeals the district court's denial of his motion to suppress evidence that police discovered while searching his van without a warrant. But warrantless searches of vehicles carried out as part of law enforcement's community caretaking functions do not violate the Fourth Amendment if they are reasonable under the circumsta…
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What began as a lawful traffic stop violated the Fourth Amendment’s shield against unreasonable seizures when the officers detoured from the traffic stop’s mission by conducting the dog sniff and inquiring into matters unrelated to the traffic violation and these detours prolonged the stop “‘beyond the time reasonably required to complete the missi…
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On September 24, 2019, shortly after witnessing Manley Johnson leave Appellant Maurice Bailey's home, Kannapolis, North Carolina police officer Jeremy Page discovered 0.1 grams of cocaine base during a search of Johnson's vehicle. Officer Page then confronted Bailey about the cocaine sale and instructed him to turn over any drugs still in his posse…
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In February 1980, petitioner Doggett was indicted on federal drug charges, but he left the country before the Drug Enforcement Agency could secure his arrest. The DEA knew that he was later imprisoned in Panama, but after requesting that he be expelled back to the United States, never followed up on his status. Once the DEA discovered that he had l…
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The Fourth Amendment provides that “[t]he right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated.” U.S. Const. amend. IV. “[W]arrantless searches are typically unreasonable where a search is undertaken by law enforcement officials to discover evidence of crimi…
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Border Patrol agents watched a man climb over the Mexico-United States border fence and followed him as he took a taxi to Heriberto Perea-Rey's home. An agent watched the suspected undocumented alien walk through the gated entrance to the home and knock on the front door. The agent followed him through the front yard, around the side of the house a…
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The issue before this court is whether Captain Walsh was justified in making entry into the Defendant's residence without first obtaining a search warrant. The United States Supreme Court has held that a warrant is not required to enter a person's home when "the exigencies of the situation make the needs of law enforcement so compelling that the wa…
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“To invoke the Fourth Amendment protections, a person must show that [they] had a legitimate expectation of privacy.” U.S. v. Shryock, 342 F.3d 948, 978 (9th Cir. 2003) (citing Smith v. Maryland, 442 U.S. 735, 740 (1979)). An expectation of privacy is legitimate if it is one that society accepts as objectively reasonable. See Minnesota v. Olson, 49…
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On August 26, 2020, at approximately 2:32 AM, Odom drove past two California Highway Patrol officers at 92 miles per hour, in violation of California law. ECF No. 1 at 5. The officers followed the vehicle and instructed Odom to stop, roll down the windows, and turn off the car. He complied immediately. Dashcam 1:04-1:12. After the car stopped, Offi…
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Under the Fourth Amendment, defendant had a legitimate expectation of *320 privacy in his rented hotel room. See Stoner v. California, 376 U.S. 483, 490, 84 S.Ct. 889, 11 L.Ed.2d 856 (1964); United States v. Kitchens, 114 F.3d 29, 31 (4th Cir. 1997). Additionally, warrantless searches are presumptively unreasonable unless the search falls within a …
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The Court concluded that “[o]nce the entity at issue is beyond the border, the concerns animating the border search doctrine, namely the integrity of the border, diminish, and the robust Fourth Amendment requirements adhere.” This was because the installation of a GPS device “implicates a search away from the border, once the target has gained entr…
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The Border Search Doctrine is one of the longstanding warrantless search exceptions to the 4th Amendment. Most searches at the border do not require a warrant or probable cause because of Congress’s authority to regulate commerce and maintain sovereignty. • Border Search can be classified as “routine” or “non-routine”. o Pat-Down or X-Ray versus Bo…
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