003 - Forming Our Nation


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Welcome back to The Emancipation Podcast Station - the place to hear about history researched and retold through the eyes of Middle school and HS students.

Last time on the show...

Today we are “Creating a Nation”. Let’s dive in.

Braden: What is the SCC? When did the SCC happen?

    The Second Continental Congress
    Blake- The Second Continental Congress was formed in 1775 in Philadelphia right after the fight for american independence began. It was formed for the purpose of military strategy and provide direction in the new war. George Washington was ll elected to be the commander of the armies. The Second Continental Congress had became the government of that time. Ricky-the second continental Congress was basically the first government the U.S had. Formed or more accurately held, it was what created decisions like “should we go to war” “should we try for a treaty” or “should we attack now or in the future”. Ben- On July 5 the conservatives thought reconciliation was possible so they made the olive branch petition, it was made stating the colonies loyalty to the crown, and congress passed it. The next day the colonies got congress to pass the Declaration and Necessity of Taking Up Arms, explaining the colonies decision to GO TO WAR. It completely demolished the olive branch petition and everything it said. That’s how the battles of lexington and concord started. Skylar - The two main factions represented at the congress. John Jay from NY and John Dickinson from PA. they were conservatives, and there were two radical leaders. Their names were, John Adams of Massachusetts, and Thomas Jefferson of Virginia. On july 5th congress authorized the Olive Branch Petition as one last and final attempt of negotiation and affirm the colonies loyalty to the crown. Hunter- The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the thirteen colonies that started meeting in the summer of 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, soon after the Revolutionary war had begun. Ethan - On the 4th of July in 1776 the Continental Congress issued the Declaration of Independence. They were motivated to do so because they wanted to secure the alliance with the French. Negotiations were over and they needed full independence. In those moments Thomas Jefferson decided to write the first draft of the famous document which was edited by the other delegates. It was then issued on July 4th.

    The Declaration of Independence

Braden: Why was the Doi written? What did it basically do? What were some of the things mentioned in it?

    Blake- The Declaration of Independence is possibly the most famous point in the Revolutionary War. Written by Thomas Jefferson there is signs of Enlightenment thinking within the text. Ricky-the declaration of independence was a cry for independence, obviously by looking at the name. These men basically put their lives at risk for their country, and knew that by sending arguably the most important piece of paper in the entire world, to the most powerful country in the world (at the time), they would ultimately change the course of the world, or be the biggest failure ever. Of course we all know how that ended up to be. Ben- The Declaration was basically asking for help from france because they knew they couldn’t win a war against a great superpower like britain so they made the declaration. It talked about how England cut off trade from everywhere of the world, how it taxed them without consent, and how it stationed these british soldiers, (called regulators) into america without any warning. That’s the basics at least. Skylar - The declaration of independence was a point of no return for the young united states. Thomas jefferson was the main man of writing this declaration. Many think the declaration of independence was the cause of the revolutionary war, although some parts of the war were already going on long before the declaration of independence was even public. Hunter- The Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress at the Pennsylvania state house In Philadelphia, on july 4, 1775, which announced that the thirteen American Colonies, which at war with the Kingdom of Great Britain, regarded themselves as thirteen independent sovereign states, no longer under the British rule. Ethan - Some of the first lines to the Declaration were” We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal”. This document was basically telling the world that the were no longer a United Kingdom colony. As I said before the article was written by Thomas Jefferson.
    The Articles of Confederation Braden: Why was the AoC doomed to fail?
    Blake- In 1777 The Articles of Confederation was created in hopes of looking as different from Monarchy as possible. Although there were complications as to getting it ratified by law it would need at least 9 out of 13 states for the ratification to be approved. Eventually the Articles would be changed in 1789 for a new constitution. Ricky-being created in 1777, and officially ratified by all 13 states, there seemed to be a need in change. The federal government was weak, and Shay’s rebellion proved this, and while a change was needed, it was also a turning point for colonial americans when it came to politics like a working constitution which was finally put into complete and full effect on September 13 1788. Ben- created in 1777 in effect from 1781-1789. Balance of federal and state power, no executive or judicial branch, just congress. 13 states, 1 representative each. Any law pass must be 9/13 states. To change article of confederation, must be unanimous vote. The articles unite all 13 states into one government, which is a good thing. Skylar - The Articles Of Confederation was the first constitution of the united states. It was put in place even before the one that we have now and adopted in 1789. The articles of confederation were created in 1777. This was put in place because the US was trying to get away from monarchy and wanted to try something new called limited government. If they wanted to pass anything, rather it was just a little law, or a law that would change the main language it would have to go through all of the states and be elected yes from all of them before anything could change. They did this so all states would feel like they were being treated equally but in the long run it would just be a pain. Hunter- The Articles of Confederation was the first written constitution of the United States of America. Steaming in wartime urgency, it’s progress was slowed down by fears of central Authority and extensive land claims by the states before it was ratified, or made effective, on March 1, 1781. Ethan - As everyone else has said, the Articles of Confederation were the first written constitution of the United States. They were one of the many debates over balance in state and federal governments. Created during the middle of the revolution, around 1777. Megan

    Shays's Rebellion Braden: Why did shay rebel? Why couldnt the state stop him?
    Blake- Daniel Shays was a farmer and veteran of the Revolutionary War from Massachusetts. He led a rebellion against the state of Massachusetts for the treatment of the states economy. Daniel had remained unpaid for his service in the military upon finding out he was not the only one to be unpaid he decided to do something. Ricky-Shay’s rebellion was a battle/protest in western massachusetts. It was an attempt to seize the armoury of weapons. Fortunately for us they weren’t successful in their attack, or else surely Britain would come in through all the chaos. But it had a great outcome nonetheless. The shock of the protest made george washington resign from his presidency during his second term, and created thought as to what the articles of confederation should really have in it. Ben- Daniel Shay used to be a farmer, then the revolutionary war happened, he joined the militia and fought in Lexington, the Battle for Bunker Hill, and Saratoga. He was still being taxed during his service. And couldn’t pay them because he didn’t get payed for his service. The congress with no army and no way to raise money couldnt fight off this revolution. Skylar - in august of 1786 a veteran that was in the revolutionary war named Daniel shays led an armed army to Springfield, Massachusetts to protest about what he thought was the most unjust thing in the whole wide world. In the 1800s farmers in western Massachusetts were so mad at the taxes made by a far away government so they rebelled. The government responded by attempting to suppress the rebellion. Hunter- Ethan - Shays’s Rebellion occurred during August 1786. Daniel Shays was the leader of a large rebellion in Springfield, Massachusetts to show injustice in the economics and politics of the state legislature. Farmers were mad because the taxes were made by an unsympathetic government to quote the material. In this situation they rebelled and the government decided to suppress that rebellion. Megan Braden: what was the ⅗ article? What was the two ideas that came out of the convention? What was the great compromise? What was its alternative name?

    The Constitutional Convention
    Blake- The Constitutional Convention was held in hopes of creating a stronger central government which The Articles of Confederation did not accomplish. The main problem of this was that they wanted to stay away from Monarchy as far as possible. Ricky- the articles ofp confederation were held in the hopes of editing the articles of confederation. Instead they created a new constitution, a document separating us from the rest of the world not just as a country, but also as a people. Ben- the founding fathers thought the articles of confederation werent working and had to make the second constitution in US history, the constitutional convention. They also did the virginia plan during this time, because they wanted a new legislature, which stated that there should be a certain amount of representatives based on the population of the state, virginia had the biggest population at that time. But the little states didnt like this so they made the new jersey plan, kinda like the aticles of confederation, it said that each state gets one vote in everything, so that everyone got the same amount of representation. Skylar - Before the constitutional convention the united states was just a hope mess. The previous system of government (the articles of confederation) was a mess. They would let other states raise taxes on another state’s goods which makes no sense like why???? Also they could not keep a working military together for some reason, and a whole bunch more crazy stuff. So the newly adapted united states needed a come to jesus meeting so they held the constitutional convention. This was held in 1887 and delegates from 12 of the 13 states showed up to discuss what the heck they needed to do to make a new and improved government. Rhode Island didn’t show up because they wanted to be petty and didn’t want a central government which was okay because the other delegates were gonna figure regardless. This took place in Philly also where the DoI was signed. Hunter- The Constitutional Convention scene at the signing of the Constitution of the United States. The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention) Took place on May 25, to September 17, 1787. Ethan - 55 Delegates from 12 of the 13 states met in Philadelphia to take another look at the Articles of Confederation which did not support the young America. The ⅗ compromise was something that came from the famous convention. It states that an african american was counted as ⅗ of a person, proof they weren’t equal. It wasn’t right. Megan

    The US Constitution Braden: Whats to stop one part of the Gov to take control? What powers does each section have?
    Blake- The US Constitution was what came of the Constitutional Convention it states the different powers of each three governmental branches. Even though Thomas Jefferson was a big part of the government at the time he was not present during signing as he was working as a representative in France. To stop the formation of a tyrannical government the three branches were given the ability to stop eachother from passing laws that were deemed unconstitutional. Ricky- the U.S constitution of Rights which, like Ben said, are “still being used today, that’s 200 years of use”. The constitution is not just what set us apart from most countries then, but it still keeps us separated from most countries today. Here is the first of said rights stated in the constitution. “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; orr the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to peti the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of the people to peaceably to assemble and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances” Ben The delegates were in trouble trying to make the ideal government, so they made the great comprimise which gave the each state 2 senators. There was an upper house and lower house, upper house has 2 senators and lower house has a number of representatives based on pop. and if something gets approved it is sent to the upper house. The US constitution is the oldest constitution in history, still being used today, that’s 200 years of use. Skylar - The US constitution is the oldest constitution still being used and one of the smallest. They made this constitution at the constitutional convention in 1887. This was going to be a great compromise for a new government system the newly adapted United states that nearly everyone could agree on. They wanted balance and equality. They agreed that it would be a 2 house legislature and there would be a house of representatives. as well as 2 senate’s for each state regardless of how big or small it might be. Hunter- The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. The Constitution originally compressing seven articles, delineates the national frame of the Government. Ethan - It was a compromise in the famous convention. It is what Americans use to govern themselves. I mean we still follow it today. It made sure no branch of government was more powerful than another. I want to point out that it basically balanced out all things American government. Megan

That’s all we have time for today. Thanks for joining us in this emancipation from the box, that is learning.

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